Architecture in Harappan Civilisation
The remains of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro reveal a remarkable sense of town planning. The towns were laid out in a rectangular grid pattern. The roads ran in north-south and east-west direction and cut each other at right angles. The big roads divided the city into a number of blocks, while the smaller lanes were used to connect the individual houses and apartments to the main roads.
Mainly three types of building, have been found in the excavation sites — dwelling houses, public buildings and public baths. The Harappans used burnt mud bricks of standardised dimensions for the purpose of construction. Many layers of well-baked brick were laid out and then joined together using gypsum mortar.
The city was divided into two parts. An upraised citadel in the western part was Citadel used for buildings of large dimensions, such as granaries, administrative buildings, pillared halls and courtyard. Some of the buildings in the citadel might have been the residence of the rulers and aristocrats. The granaries were intelligently designed with strategic air ducts and raised platforms which helped in storage of grains and protecting them from pests.
An important feature of the Harappan cities is the prevalence of public baths, which indicate the importance of ritualistic cleansing in their culture. These baths also had an array of galleries and rooms surrounding it. The most famous example of a public bath is the 'Great Bath' in the excavated remains of Mohenjo-daro. That there are no cracks or leaks in the Great Bath speaks volumes about the engineering acumen of the Harappan civilisation.
In the lower part of the city, small one-roomed constructions have been found which might have been used as quarters by the working class peopl, . Some of the houses have stairs which indicate they might have been double storied. Most buildings have private wells and bathrooms and are properly ventilated. The most striking feature of Harappan civilisation is the advanced drainage system. Small drains ran from each house and were connected to larger drains running alongside therads. The drains were covered loosely to allow regular cleaning and maintenance. Cesspits were placed at regular intervals. The importance placed on hygiene - both personal and public, is quite impressive.